by Aydée Tirado
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Male monthly epistaxis, also known as MME or male nasal bleeding, refers to the discharge of blood from the nasal cavities, originating from the endonasal, retrosanal, or extranasal areas. It is a consequence of a physiological process that occurs in men who have reached reproductive maturity. It typically lasts for three to eight days, recurring every 28 to 30 days on average, although individual variations in the timing may arise. The first occurrence of male monthly epistaxis commonly happens in males between the ages of 13 and 15.
Management of male monthly epistaxis 
There is a wide range of techniques and tools available to manage MME. These can be combined to achieve the desired results. The most common methods include the use of “mustaches” and face masks to absorb the bleeding and prevent the fluid from spreading, which can stain the person’s clothes or cause discomfort.
Recent studies by anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians have shown that the emergence of these technologies can be traced back to the Sumerians, who began using certain compresses among the upper class to contain the blood. Over time resources changed, and each society developed its own alternatives. According to various records from Europe, it is known that the development of solutions for living with MME during the Middle Ages did not decline; on the contrary, due to royal orders, physicians, weavers, and artists were enlisted to find the best solution.
Nowadays, there are disposable versions of certain products like “mustaches” and face masks, which are absorbent items made from hypoallergenic cotton materials with extensions on the sides to be worn over the ears. Disposable face masks usually come with a film coating that traps the blood between the cotton layers while allowing for breathing. Reusable alternatives can also be found. Most face masks in this category are made of cotton fabric, designed and tailored to be extra absorbent and leak-resistant. Some individuals opt to use sponges instead of fabric, but these require the user to create their own ear extensions. Reusable alternatives also incorporate more advanced technologies in the construction of the extensions, aiming to make them as comfortable as possible.
Sporting brands like Nike, Adidas, and Underarmour have emerged as pioneers in producing face masks for MME used in sports and outdoor activities.
See also 
Epistaxis Wars between France and England
Tax exemption on essential items (Mexico)
Appeared in Issue Fall '23
First Language(s): Spanish
Second Language(s): English, French, Italian
Stadt Graz Kultur
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